13 Cities Edition: de Facto/de Jure: By Custom/By Law

Project Diagram

de facto / de jure

The Southern Crescent line traversed the eastern coast of the United States and was a migration route during the “Great Migration” and exodus of African-Americans departing the South during the “Jim Crow” era. The train line was last private line to be subsumed by Amtrak in 1979.

The de facto/ de jure valise is both an instruction manual on public accommodation access for the African-American train traveler, like the “Green Guide” was for automotive travel, and a role playing game.

The de facto/ de jure valise is an atlas containing maps of the legal terrain of public accommodation segregation in the 20th century and provides a narrative of the continuing struggle of integrationist and segregationist values in the United States.